The problems of combined loading are fairly common in aircraft structures. For example, if we consider the aerodynamic loads acting on a wing. We realize that in many cases the line of aerodynamic centers does not coincide with the elastic axis (i.e., the line passing through the shear center of every spanwise section of the wing). As a result the wing bending will be combined with twisting action as well. So in this case the loads at the aerodynamic center line can be replaced with an equivalent force couple system acting at the elastic axis. The force component will produce transverse shear loading and bending moment along the length of the wing while the couple produces a torque.

The example problem below is taken from the previous section and it basically highlights the procedure for analyzing such problems in general. One must keep in mind that depending upon the complexity of the beam cross section the bending and shear stresses may require the use of general bending stress and general shear flow equations. In addition to the loadings stated earlier it may be possible to have axial tension as well. The rotating wing problem (i.e., helicopter blade) is a good example of such a problem.


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